Additional Information for Keynote Feature, November 2019

EVA BC Newsletter Fall 2019

Background for Keynotes Feature Article

Immigration Policies and Immigrant Women’s Vulnerability to Intimate Partner Violence in Canada

By Vathsala Illesinghe

Works cited:

  1. Bhuyan, R. (2012). Negotiating citizenship on the frontlines: how the devolution of Canadian immigration policy shapes service delivery to women fleeing abuse. Law & Policy, 34(2), 211–236.
  2. Das Gupta, T. (2011). Canadian multiculturalism and social inclusion. Equity matters.
  3. Dobrowolsky, A. (2010). Immigrant women, equality and diversity in Canada. Equity Matters.
  4. Kasturirangan, A., Krishnan, S. and Riger, S. (2004) The impact of culture and minority status on women’s experience of domestic violence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 5, 318-332.
  5. Guruge, S., Khanlou, N., & Gastaldo, D. (2010). The production of intimate male partner violence in the migration process: intersections of gender, race, and class. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(1), 103–113.
  6. Tyyskä, V. & Dinshaw, F. (2009). Families and violence in Punjabi and Tamil communities in Toronto. CERIS working paper no. 96. Toronto: CERIS: The Ontario Metropolis Centre.
  7. Dua, E. (2000). The Hindu women’s question: Canadian nation building and the social construction of gender for South Asian-Canadian women’. In A. Calliste & G. J. Sefa Dei (Eds.), Anti-racist feminism: critical race and gender studies (pp. 55–72). Halifax: Fernwood.
  8. Gabriel, C. (2006). A question of skills: gender, migration policy and the global political economy in Kees van der Pijl, Libby Assassi and Duncan Wigen (Eds.) Global regulation: managing crises after the imperial turn. Palgrave Macmillan
  9. Hudon, T. (2015). Immigrant women. In Women in Canada: a gender-based statistical report. Statistics Canada. Catalogue no. 89–503-X.
  10. (2017). Growing gap: immigrants, racialized residents in the 2016 Census.
  11. Barata, P. C., McNally, M. J., Sales, I. M., & Stewart, D. E. (2005). Portuguese immigrant women’s perspectives on wife abuse: a cross-generational comparison. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20(9), 1132–1150.
  12. Guruge, S., Refaie-Shirpak, K., Hyman, I., Zanchetta, M., Gastaldo, D., & Sidani, S. (2010). A meta synthesis of post-migration changes in marital relationships in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 101(4), 327–331.
  13. Hyman, I., Mason, R., Guruge, S., Berman, H., Kanagaratnam, P., & Manuel, L. (2006). Perceptions of factors contributing to intimate partner violence among Sri Lankan Tamil immigrant women in Canada. Health Care for Women International, 32(9), 779–794.
  14. Hyman, I., Guruge, S., & Mason, R. (2008). The impact of post-migration changes on marital relationships: a study of Ethiopian couples. Journal of Comp. Family Studies, 39, 149–164.
  15. MacLeod, L., &Shin M. (1990). Isolated, afraid and forgotten: the service delivery needs and realities of immigrant and refugee women who are battered. Health Canada: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence Health and Welfare Canada.
  16. Bhuyan, R., Osborne, B., & Cruz, J.F.J. (2013). Unprotected and unrecognized: the ontological insecurity of migrants who are denied protection from domestic violence in their home countries as refugee claimants in Canada. CERIS Working Paper No. 96. Toronto: CERIS: The Ontario Metropolis Centre.
  17. Bhuyan, R., Osborne, B., Zahraei, S., & Tarshis, S. (2014). Unprotected, unrecognized Canadian immigration policy and violence against women, 2008–2013. Toronto: University of Toronto.
  18. Caplan, G. (2017). Honour killings in Canada: even worse than we believe. The Globe and Mail. March 27, 2017.
  19. Cohen, T. (2012). ‘Honour killings’ on the rise in Canada: expert. http://www.canada. com/life/honour+killings+rise+canada+expert/3165638/story.html
  20. Crowe, Janey (2006, Nov 1) Multiculturalism always has been a flawed concept. Vancouver Sun.
  21. Olwan, D. M. (2013). Gendered violence, cultural otherness, and honour crimes in Canadian National Logics. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 38(4), 533–555.
  22. Department of Justice. (2016). Preliminary examination of so-called honour killings in Canada. http://www.
  23. Hildebrandt, A. (2009). Honour killings: domestic abuse by another name? CBC News Canada. Jul 24, 2009.
  24. Du Mont, J., & Forte, T. (2012). An exploratory study on the consequences and contextual factors of intimate partner violence among immigrant and Canadian-born women. BMJ Open, 2, e001728. https://doi. org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012
  25. Bernhard, J. K., Goldring, L., Young, J., Berinstein, C., & Wilson, B. (2009). Living with precarious legal status in Canada: implications for the well-being of children and families. Refuge, 24(2), 101–114.
  26. Hyman, I., Forte, T., Du Mont, J., Romans, S., & Cohen, M. M. (2009). Help-seeking behavior for intimate partner violence among racial minority women in Canada. Women’s Health Issues, 19(2), 101–108.
  27. Guruge, S. (2014). Perceptions about and responses to intimate partner violence in the Sinhalese Immigrant Community in Toronto. Arts Social Sci J, S, S1-006.
  28. Alaggia, R., Regehr, C., & Rishchynski, G. (2009). Intimate partner violence and immigration laws in Canada: how far have we come? International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 32(6), 335–341.
  29. George, P., & Rashidi, M. (2011). Domestic violence in South Asian communities in the GTA: critical perspectives of community activists and service providers. CAOS: The Journal of Critical Anti- Oppressive Social Inquiry, 1, 67–81.
  30. Guruge, S., & Humphreys, J. (2009). Barriers that affect abused immigrant women’s access to and use of formal social supports. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 41(3), 64–84.

Dignity Across the Lifespan

By Cathy Richardson

Recommended Reading on the Connection Between Social Responses and Well-Being After Violence (Compiled by Allan Wade, Centre for Response-Based Practice)

Andrews, B. (1995). Bodily shame as a mediator between abusive experiences and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 277-285.

Andrews, B. (1997). Bodily shame in relation to abuse in childhood and bulimia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 41-50.

Andrews, B. & Hunter, E. (1997). Shame, early abuse and course of depression in a clinical sample: A preliminary study. Cognition and Emotion, 11, 373-381.

Ahern J, Galea S, Fernandez WG, Koci B, Waldman R, Vlahov D. (2004). Gender, social support, and posttraumatic stress in postwar Kosovo. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis 2004;192(11):762–70. [PubMed: 15505520]

Andrews B, Brewin CR, Rose S. (2003). Gender, social support, and PTSD in victims of violent crime. J. Trauma Stress 2003;16(4):421–27. [PubMed: 12895025]

Ayers, T. Sandler, I. West, S. Roosa, M. (1996). A Dispositional and Situational Assessment of children’s Coping: Testing Alternative Models of Coping. Program for Prevention research Arizona State University. Journal of Personality 64:4, December 1996.

Bal S, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Crombez G, Van Oost P. (2006). Predictors of trauma symptomatology in sexually abused adolescents: a 6-month follow-up study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2005;20(11):1390–405.

Ballan,, Self-Defense Among Women With Disabilities An Unexplored Domain in Domestic Violence Cases Michelle S. Ballan1 Molly Burke Freyer2. violence against women Journal. 1Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. New York University, New York, NY, USA. Columbia University, School of Social Work, 1255 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA Email:

Burstow, B. (1992) Radical Feminist Therapy. Newbury Park. CA: Sage.

Borja SE, Callahan JL, Long PJ. (2006). Positive and negative adjustment and social support of sexual assault survivors. J. Trauma Stress 2006;19(6):905–14. [PubMed: 17195986]

Brewin CR, Andrews B, Valentine JD. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol 2000;68(5):748–66. [PubMed: 11068961]

Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B & Rose, S. (2003). Gender, Social Support, and PTSD in Victims of Violent Crime. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2003, 16(4): 421-427

Brewin, C. R. & Andrews, B., (1990) ‘Attributions of blame for marital violence: A study of antecedents and consequences’, Journal of Family and Marriage 52. 757-67.

Brewin, Chris R.; Andrews, Bernice; Rose, Suzanna. Fear Helplessness Horror. (2000). Journal of Traumatic Stress, Jul2000, Vol. 13 Issue 3, p499, 11p;

Brewin, Chris R.; Andrews, Bernice; Valentine, John D. (2000). Meta-Analysis of Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Trauma-Exposed Adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 68(5), Oct 2000. pp. 748-766.

Brewin, C. Andrews, B. Valetine, J. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 68, 748-766.

Campbell R, Ahrens CE, Sefl T, Wasco SM, Barnes HE. Social reactions to rape victims: healing and hurtful effects on psychological and physical health outcomes. Violence, 2001;16(3):287–302. [PubMed: 11437118]

Coan JA, Schaefer HS, Davidson RJ. (2006). Lending a hand: social regulation of the neural response to threat. Psychological Sciences, 2006;17(12):1032–39. [PubMed: 17201784]

Cohen S, Wills TA. (1995). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychology Bulletin. 1985;98(2):310–57. [PubMed: 3901065]

Coleborne. Insanity and ethnicity in New Zealand: Māori encounters with the Auckland Mental Hospital, 1860—1900. (2011). Issue: 22 Pages: 285-301 Date: sept 2011. History of psychiatry

Davis RC, Brickman E, Baker T. (199). Supportive and unsupportive responses of others to rape victims: effectson concurrent victim adjustment. Am. J. Community Psychology, 1991;19(3):443–51. [PubMed:1892138]

Fazel, M., & Stein, A. (2003). Mental health of refugee children: Comparative study. British Medical Journal, 327(7407), 134.

Filipas HH, Ullman SE. (2001). Social reactions to sexual assault victims from various support sources. Violence Vict 2001;16(6):673–92. [PubMed: 11863065]

Fournier, S. & Crey, E. (1997). ‘Stolen From Our Embrace: The Abduction of First Nations Children and the Restoration of Aboriginal Communities’, Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre.

Heinrichs M, Baumgartner T, Kirschbaum C, Ehlert U. Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress. Biological Psychiatry 2003;54(12):1389–98. [PubMed: 14675803]

Hyman S, Gold S, Cott M. (2003). Forms of social support that moderate PTSD in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Journal of Family Violence 2003;18(5): 295–300.

Irwin HJ. (1996). Traumatic childhood events, perceived availability of emotional support, and the development of dissociative tendencies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 1996; 20 (8):701–7. [PubMed: 8866116]

Joseph S, Yule W, Williams R, Andrews B. (1993). Crisis support in the aftermath of disaster: a longitudinal perspective. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1993;32(Part 2):177–85. [PubMed: 8318935]

Kaniasty K, Norris FH. Social support and victims of crime: matching event, support, and outcome. American Journal of Community Psychology, 1992;20(2):211–41. [PubMed: 1605134]

Kaspersen M, Matthiesen SB, Gotestam KG. (2003). Social network as a moderator in the relation between trauma exposure and trauma reaction: a survey among UN soldiers and relief workers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 2003;44(5):415–23. [PubMed: 15030107]

Kessler RC, Price RH, Wortman CB. (1985). Social factors in psychopathology: stress, social support, and coping processes. Annu. Rev. Psychol 1985;36:531–72. [PubMed: 3883893]

Norris FH, Kaniasty K. Received and perceived social support in times of stress: a test of the social support deterioration deterrence model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1996;71(3):498–511.

Runtz MG, Schallow JR. Social support and coping strategies as mediators of adult adjustment following childhood maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect. 1997;21(2):211–26. [PubMed: 9056101]

Scheeringa MS, Zeanah CH. A relational perspective on PTSD in early childhood. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2001;14(4):799–815. [PubMed: 11776426]

Schumm JA, Briggs-Phillips M, Hobfoll SE. Cumulative interpersonal traumas and social support as risk and resiliency factors in predicting PTSD and depression among inner-city women. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2006;19(6):825–36. [PubMed: 17195981]

Scott, J. C. (1990). Domination and the arts of resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Ullman SE. (1996). Do social reactions to sexual assault victims vary by support provider? Violence Vict 1996a; 11(2):143–57. [PubMed: 8933710]

Ullman SE. Social reactions, coping strategies, and self-blame attributions in adjustment to sexual assault. Psychol. Women Q 1996b;20(4):505–26.

Ullman, S.E. (1996) Do social reactions to sexual assault victims vary by Support Providers? Violence and Victims, Vol. 11, No. 2, pages 143-159.

Vervliet, De Mol, Broekaert, Derluyn (2003). ‘That I Live, that’s Because of Her’: Intersectionality as Framework for Unaccompanied Refugee Mothers. British Journal of Social Work (2013) 1–19.